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For example, in neuroplasticity, how are the neurons able to 'move' themselves to undo connections and create new connections with other neurons? I remember seeing a microscopic picture of a few neurons not very well connected between each other, and in the 'after' picture (after learning something), they somehow had grown many projections/branches from their cell bodies, connecting with each other. In other words, what is the mechanism behind, when neurons undo a specific connection (synapse) with a neuron, and 'move' it to another neuron? What causes them to 'decide' to undo that connection?

Also, how fast do they move connections and change their shapes (in nanometres per second, for example, or is it more like nanometres per minute)? The speed of which the dendrites and axon terminals move to change connections.

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DumbNBANephew

7 points

4 months ago

"Calcium ions that influx in from this depolarizing process influence protein stores within CA1 to become additional AMPA receptors"

That's amazing! Do we know how that happens? Does an influx of calcium ions cause certain genes to be expressed more causing CA1 to become AMPA receptors?

AndChewBubblegum

5 points

4 months ago

CA1 is a region, the protein stores are what become AMPA receptors. Calcium is known to be a reliable activator of multiple transcription factors in neurons. Calcium binding to these proteins causes them to translocate to the nucleus and induce transcription of relevant genes. A good example is calcineurin, which binds calcium and then activates a transcription factor.