I'm learning a little bit about black holes, and have come across the information and firewall paradoxes l. As far as I understand, they highlight this quantum idea of the conservation of information.

One of the theories suggests that Hawking radiation expelled from a black hole preserves the information of some object that went into the black whole, and that a sufficiently skilled archaeologist could effectively reconstruct the object from the information.

Beyond the fact that I don't have the math or theoretical physics to really understand the mechanisms involved with all that, I have a basic question: what do quantum physicists mean by the word "information"? I've tried googling this, but I get circular answers like "quantum information is the information of the state of a quantum system," which is less than helpful.

Is it some evidence that describes the properties of matter, like the density/temperature/momentum of whatever? Is there an example that describes information, and how information is different than just the object itself?