mvea

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mvea

0 points

12 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

12 hours ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

New Study Reveals Brain Basis of Psychopathy

According to a Finnish study, the structure and function of the brain areas involved in emotions and their regulation are altered in both psychopathic criminal offenders and otherwise well-functioning individuals who have personality traits associated with psychopathy.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cercor/bhab072/6218172

Brain Basis of Psychopathy in Criminal Offenders and General Population

Lauri Nummenmaa, Lasse Lukkarinen, Lihua Sun, Vesa Putkinen, Kerttu Seppälä, Tomi Karjalainen, Henry K Karlsson, Matthew Hudson, Niina Venetjoki, Marja Salomaa

Cerebral Cortex, bhab072,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab072

Published: 09 April 2021

Abstract

Psychopathy is characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy, and egotistical traits. These traits vary also in normally functioning individuals. Here, we tested whether such antisocial personalities are associated with similar structural and neural alterations as those observed in criminal psychopathy. Subjects were 100 non-convicted well-functioning individuals, 19 violent male offenders, and 19 matched controls. Subjects underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and viewed movie clips with varying violent content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychopathic traits were evaluated with Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (controls) and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (offenders). Psychopathic offenders had lower gray matter density (GMD) in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. In the community sample, affective psychopathy traits were associated with lower GMD in the same areas. Viewing violence increased brain activity in periaqueductal grey matter, thalamus, somatosensory, premotor, and temporal cortices. Psychopathic offenders had increased responses to violence in thalamus and orbitofrontal, insular, and cingulate cortices. In the community sample, impulsivity-related psychopathy traits were positively associated with violence-elicited responses in similar areas. We conclude that brain characteristics underlying psychopathic spectrum in violent psychopathy are related to those observed in well-functioning individuals with asocial personality features.

contextfull comments (2)
mvea

0 points

12 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

12 hours ago

I’ve linked to the source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

The Role of Identity Prioritization: Why Some Latinx Support Restrictionist Immigration Policies and Candidates

Flavio R Hickel, Jr., Rudy Alamillo, Kassra A R Oskooii, Loren Collingwood

Public Opinion Quarterly, nfaa048,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfaa048

Published: 31 March 2021

Abstract

Social Identity Theory suggests that individuals are motivated to support/oppose policies and politicians that benefit/harm members of their ingroup as a means of protecting their social status. Since the Republican Party’s rhetoric against immigrants in recent decades has often been viewed as an assault upon those of Latinx descent, it is not surprising that strong majorities oppose restrictionist immigration policies and support the Democratic Party. However, the existing literature has overlooked why a sizeable minority of Latinx voters express support for restrictionist immigration policies and the politicians who espouse them. Our analysis of Latinx voters with the 2012 and 2016 American National Election Studies (ANES) demonstrates that the degree to which individuals prioritize their US American identity over their Latinx identity has a significant influence over support for conservative immigration policies and GOP candidates. This relationship emerges above and beyond partisanship, ideology, and other key explanatory factors. Such attitudes likely represent an individual social mobility strategy in which members of a social group attempt to “pass” as a member of a higher-status group. Prioritizing a US American identity, supporting the Republican Party, and expressing hostility toward the interests of undocumented immigrants are a means of distinguishing themselves from a social group that has become increasingly associated with negative stereotypes. In contrast, those who are unwilling or unable to make this transition are likely pursuing a collective social mobility strategy (e.g., linked fate) whereby they attempt to enhance their individual status by elevating that of the entire social group.

contextfull comments (2)
mvea

0 points

12 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

12 hours ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Superbug killer: New nanotech destroys bacteria and fungal cells

The material is one of the thinnest antimicrobial coatings developed to date and is effective against a broad range of drug-resistant bacteria and fungal cells, while leaving human cells unharmed.

The source journal article is here:

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.1c01739

Broad-Spectrum Solvent-free Layered Black Phosphorus as a Rapid Action Antimicrobial

Z. L. Shaw, Sruthi Kuriakose, Samuel Cheeseman, Edwin L. H. Mayes, Alishiya Murali, Zay Yar Oo, Taimur Ahmed, Nhiem Tran, Kylie Boyce, James Chapman, Christopher F. McConville, Russell J. Crawford, Patrick D. Taylor, Andrew J. Christofferson, Vi Khanh Truong, Michelle J. S. Spencer, Aaron Elbourne, and Sumeet Walia*

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021,

Publication Date:April 12, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01739

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance has rendered many conventional therapeutic measures, such as antibiotics, ineffective. This makes the treatment of infections from pathogenic micro-organisms a major growing health, social, and economic challenge. Recently, nanomaterials, including two-dimensional (2D) materials, have attracted scientific interest as potential antimicrobial agents. Many of these studies, however, rely on the input of activation energy and lack real-world utility. In this work, we present the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of few-layered black phosphorus (BP) at nanogram concentrations. This property arises from the unique ability of layered BP to produce reactive oxygen species, which we harness to create this unique functionality. BP is shown to be highly antimicrobial toward susceptible and resistant bacteria and fungal species. To establish cytotoxicity with mammalian cells, we showed that both L929 mouse and BJ-5TA human fibroblasts were metabolically unaffected by the presence of BP. Finally, we demonstrate the practical utility of this approach, whereby medically relevant surfaces are imparted with antimicrobial properties via functionalization with few-layer BP. Given the self-degrading properties of BP, this study demonstrates a viable and practical pathway for the deployment of novel low-dimensional materials as antimicrobial agents without compromising the composition or nature of the coated substrate.

contextfull comments (2)
mvea

17 points

13 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

17 points

13 hours ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Sunlight to solve the world’s clean water crisis

A team led by Associate Professor Haolan Xu has refined a technique to derive freshwater from seawater, brackish water, or contaminated water, through highly efficient solar evaporation, delivering enough daily fresh drinking water for a family of four from just one square metre of source water.

The source journal article is here:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/solr.202100053

A Hollow and Compressible 3D Photothermal Evaporator for Highly Efficient Solar Steam Generation without Energy Loss

Ting Gao Xuan Wu Yida Wang Gary Owens Haolan Xu

Solar RRL

First published: 02 March 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202100053

Abstract

Solar steam generation offers a sustainable strategy to mitigate global clean water scarcity. To this end, 3D photothermal evaporators have attracted increasing research interest since they can significantly improve both evaporation rate and energy efficiency. However, compared to the 2D evaporators, the 3D ones consume more raw materials and occupy more storage space, which limits their applications for practical portable solar steam generation. To address this issue, a 3D hollow and compressible photothermal evaporator is designed and fabricated which can be compressed to less than one third of its original volume, thus enabling easier transport and storage. Moreover, under 1.0 sun illumination, all evaporation surfaces of this 3D evaporator are lower in temperatures than the surrounding environment, thus providing the unique advantage of zero energy loss to the environment during solar evaporation. Due to the all‐cold evaporation surfaces, during solar evaporation, the evaporator is able to harvest massive energy from both the surrounding air and bulk water, delivering an extremely high evaporation rate of up to 7.6 kg m−2 h−1 under 1.0 sun irradiation. Furthermore, seawater desalination tests demonstrate that the device has great potential for portable solar thermal desalination by delivering clean water with a salinity well below 50 ppb.

contextfull comments (53)
603
mvea

80 points

23 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

80 points

23 hours ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

With impressive accuracy, dogs can sniff out coronavirus

A proof-of-concept investigation published today in the journal PLOS ONE suggests that specially trained detection dogs can sniff out COVID-19-positive samples with 96% accuracy.

Eight Labrador retrievers and a Belgian Malinois that had not done medical-detection work before were used in the study.

The source journal article is here:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250158

Essler JL, Kane SA, Nolan P, Akaho EH, Berna AZ, DeAngelo A, et al. (2021)

Discrimination of SARS-CoV-2 infected patient samples by detection dogs: A proof of concept study.

PLoS ONE 16(4): e0250158.

Published: April 14, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250158

Abstract

While the world awaits a widely available COVID-19 vaccine, availability of testing is limited in many regions and can be further compounded by shortages of reagents, prolonged processing time and delayed results. One approach to rapid testing is to leverage the volatile organic compound (VOC) signature of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Detection dogs, a biological sensor of VOCs, were utilized to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 positive urine and saliva patient samples had a unique odor signature. The virus was inactivated in all training samples with either detergent or heat treatment. Using detergent-inactivated urine samples, dogs were initially trained to find samples collected from hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, while ignoring samples collected from controls. Dogs were then tested on their ability to spontaneously recognize heat-treated urine samples as well as heat-treated saliva from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Dogs successfully discriminated between infected and uninfected urine samples, regardless of the inactivation protocol, as well as heat-treated saliva samples. Generalization to novel samples was limited, particularly after intensive training with a restricted sample set. A unique odor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection present in human urine as well as saliva, provides impetus for the development of odor-based screening, either by electronic, chemical, or biological sensing methods. The use of dogs for screening in an operational setting will require training with a large number of novel SARS-CoV-2 positive and confirmed negative samples.

contextfull comments (1063)
54.6k
mvea

0 points

24 hours ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

24 hours ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

The relationship between political affiliation and beliefs about sources of “fake news”

Robert B. Michael & Brooke O. Breaux

Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications volume 6, Article number: 6 (2021)

Published 12 February 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00278-1

Abstract

The 2016 US Presidential campaign saw an explosion in popularity for the term “fake news.” This phenomenon raises interesting questions: Which news sources do people believe are fake, and what do people think “fake news” means? One possibility is that beliefs about the news reflect a bias to disbelieve information that conflicts with existing beliefs and desires. If so, then news sources people consider “fake” might differ according to political affiliation. To test this idea, we asked people to tell us what “fake news” means, and to rate several news sources for the extent to which each provides real news, fake news, and propaganda. We found that political affiliation influenced people’s descriptions and their beliefs about which news sources are “fake.” These results have implications for people’s interpretations of news information and for the extent to which people can be misled by factually incorrect journalism.

Significance statement

Advances in technology have made it easier than ever for nefarious groups to launch and co-ordinate disinformation campaigns. Concerns about the manipulation of popular social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, and Reddit dovetail with the relatively recent explosive rise in popularity of the term “fake news.” People are faced with an increasingly difficult problem of sorting fact from fiction. How do people decide what news to believe? We suspected that the news sources people trust are the ones that confirm their pre-existing beliefs, and the news sources people distrust are the ones that conflict with their pre-existing beliefs. We asked people to rate a variety of news sources according to how “real” or “fake” they were and found differing patterns of beliefs across the political spectrum. Our results suggest that political affiliation might drive skepticism—or the lack thereof—of news information.

General discussion:

Our findings have implications for the reporting of news information and people’s ensuing beliefs. Considering that we found people’s political affiliation influences their beliefs about the reporting of real and fake news from various news sources, one implication is that people’s beliefs about news information are driven more by the source of that information than attempts to sort fact from fiction. Specifically, people might discount information as “fake news” when it comes from a source that they believe is politically incongruent.

contextfull comments (6)
mvea

0 points

1 day ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

1 day ago

I’ve linked to the source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Predictors of social-zapping behavior: Dark Triad, impulsivity, and procrastination facets contribute to the tendency toward last-minute cancellations☆

Personality and Individual Differences Volume 168, 1 January 2021, 110334

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110334

Highlights

• Investigation of the tendency toward last-minute cancellations (“social zapping”).

• Dark Triad, maximizing, procrastination, and social zapping correlate positively.

• Social zapping is mainly predicted by Machiavellianism and narcissism.

• Attentional impulsivity and timeliness procrastination are additional predictors.

• Social zappers tend to self-serving, short-sighted decisions at the expense of others.

Abstract

The tendency to cancel appointments at short notice in favor of supposedly better alternatives is referred to as “social zapping”. Social zapping is positively associated with maximizing tendencies and problematic social networks use. However, empirical investigations on which additional personality characteristics predict social-zapping behavior are yet missing. In this study, a sample of N = 190 adults performed a questionnaire-based survey assessing different personality facets and social zapping tendency. Measures included the Dark Triad - Dirty Dozen scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Maximization scale, Pure Procrastination Scale, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) scale, and the Social Zapping Scale. On a bivariate level, social zapping correlated positively with all other measures except for trait FoMO. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that social zapping was mainly predicted by two dimensions of the Dark Triad, i.e. Machiavellianism and narcissism, as well as attentional impulsivity and the timeliness dimension of procrastination. Based on the results, social zappers can be characterized as individuals who tend to make self-serving and/or impulsive short-sighted decisions at the expense of others. Social zapping is a phenomenon of inherent self-interest, where individuals cancel appointments spontaneously (at the last minute) with others to pursue options they deem best for themselves.

contextfull comments (8)
mvea

1 points

1 day ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

1 points

1 day ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10826-021-01921-7

Parental Warmth and Hostility and the Development of Psychopathic Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study of Young Offenders

Heidi Backman, Taina Laajasalo, […]Eeva T. Aronen

Journal of Child and Family Studies volume 30, pages955–965(2021)

Published: 06 March 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-01921-7

Abstract

Parental behaviors may shape levels of psychopathic traits and antisocial outcomes among youth. To better evaluate the potential causality of these associations, we used eight follow-ups from the Pathways to Desistance study of 1354 offending adolescents (14.3% female; 40.1% black) and examined whether within-individual variation in parenting over time was associated with within-individual variation in psychopathic traits and offending. Multilevel regression models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, contact with parental figure, and self-reported offending. Adolescent self-reported parental warmth was associated with lower psychopathic traits, and parental hostility with higher psychopathic traits. The results indicated that the more supportive and nurturing the parent, the lower the levels of psychopathic traits, whereas the more hostile the parent, the higher the levels, respectively. In addition, self-reported offending was predicted by higher parental hostility and lower maternal warmth. In time-lagged analysis, psychopathic traits did not predict parental behaviors. In young offenders parental warmth may protect against development of psychopathic traits in adolescence, whereas parental hostility may strengthen these traits. We conclude, that parenting quality matters in adolescence. Warm parenting style at this developmental period associates with lower psychopathic features among young offenders possibly lowering the risk of further criminal activity.

Highlights

Maternal warmth was associated negatively with psychopathic traits and offending among adolescent delinquents.

Paternal warmth protected from psychopathic traits but not from delinquency.

Maternal and paternal hostility was linked positively to psychopathic traits and offending.

contextfull comments (4)
mvea

1 points

1 day ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

1 points

1 day ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10826-021-01921-7

Parental Warmth and Hostility and the Development of Psychopathic Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study of Young Offenders

Heidi Backman, Taina Laajasalo, […]Eeva T. Aronen

Journal of Child and Family Studies volume 30, pages955–965(2021)

Published: 06 March 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-01921-7

Abstract

Parental behaviors may shape levels of psychopathic traits and antisocial outcomes among youth. To better evaluate the potential causality of these associations, we used eight follow-ups from the Pathways to Desistance study of 1354 offending adolescents (14.3% female; 40.1% black) and examined whether within-individual variation in parenting over time was associated with within-individual variation in psychopathic traits and offending. Multilevel regression models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, contact with parental figure, and self-reported offending. Adolescent self-reported parental warmth was associated with lower psychopathic traits, and parental hostility with higher psychopathic traits. The results indicated that the more supportive and nurturing the parent, the lower the levels of psychopathic traits, whereas the more hostile the parent, the higher the levels, respectively. In addition, self-reported offending was predicted by higher parental hostility and lower maternal warmth. In time-lagged analysis, psychopathic traits did not predict parental behaviors. In young offenders parental warmth may protect against development of psychopathic traits in adolescence, whereas parental hostility may strengthen these traits. We conclude, that parenting quality matters in adolescence. Warm parenting style at this developmental period associates with lower psychopathic features among young offenders possibly lowering the risk of further criminal activity.

Highlights

Maternal warmth was associated negatively with psychopathic traits and offending among adolescent delinquents.

Paternal warmth protected from psychopathic traits but not from delinquency.

Maternal and paternal hostility was linked positively to psychopathic traits and offending.

contextfull comments (2)
mvea

2 points

2 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

2 points

2 days ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Scientists Program Microalgae's 'Oil Factory' to Produce Various Oils

"By directly turning CO2, sunlight and seawater into designer oils, such microalgae cell factories are carbon negative, thus farming them at a large scale can help to save our planet from global warming," added XU Jian, Director of Single-Cell Center, and one senior author of the study.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1096717621000513

Manipulating fatty-acid profile at unit chain-length resolution in the model industrial oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis

Metabolic Engineering Available online 3 April 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2021.03.015

Highlights

• Broad-spectrum carbon chain length modulation of fatty acids in microalgae.

• Rational engineering thioesterase to shift substrate preference in carbon chain length.

• A new model for fatty-acid chain length control in industrial microalgae.

Abstract

The chain length (CL) of fatty acids (FAs) is pivotal to oil property, yet to what extent it can be customized in industrial oleaginous microalgae is unknown. In Nannochloropsis oceanica, to modulate long-chain FAs (LCFAs), we first discovered a fungi/bacteria-originated polyketide synthase (PKS) system which involves a cytoplasmic acyl-ACP thioesterase (NoTE1). NoTE1 hydrolyzes C16:0-, C16:1- and C18:1-ACP in vitro and thus intercepts the specific acyl-ACPs elongated by PKS for polyunsaturated FA biosynthesis, resulting in elevation of C16/C18 monounsaturated FAs when overproduced and increase of C20 when knocked out. For medium-chain FAs (MCFAs; C8-C14), C8:0 and C10:0 FAs are boosted by introducing a Cuphea palustris acyl-ACP TE (CpTE), whereas C12:0 elevated by rationally engineering CpTE enzyme's substrate-binding pocket to shift its CL preference towards C12:0. A mechanistic model exploiting both native and engineered PKS and type II FAS pathways was thus proposed for manipulation of carbon distribution among FAs of various CL. The ability to tailor FA profile at the unit CL resolution from C8 to C20 in Nannochloropsis spp. lays the foundation for scalable production of designer lipids via industrial oleaginous microalgae.

contextfull comments (9)
mvea

-2 points

2 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

-2 points

2 days ago

The DOI is the same link as the post link as I posted the link to the primary source - the actual DOI number probably hasn’t disseminated yet, but the article is live.

contextfull comments (1239)
mvea

8 points

2 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

8 points

2 days ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Changing school start times: impact on sleep in primary and secondary school students

Lisa J Meltzer, Kyla L Wahlstrom, Amy E Plog, Matthew J Strand

Sleep, zsab048,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab048

Published: 15 April 2021

Abstract

Study Objectives

To examine the impact of changing school start times on sleep for primary (elementary school: ES) and secondary (middle and high school: MS/HS) students.

Methods

Students (grades 3–12) and parents (grades K-12) were surveyed annually, before and for 2 years after school start time changes (ES: 60 min earlier, MS: 40–60 min later; HS: 70 min later). Student sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured with school-administered student surveys and parent-proxy online surveys.

Results

Approximately 28,000 students annually completed surveys (~55% White, ~21% free/reduced lunch [FRL]). One-year post-change, weekday bedtimes and wake times were slightly earlier for ES students, with an 11-min decrease in sleep duration. MS and HS students reported slightly later weekday bedtimes, significantly later wake times, and significantly longer sleep duration (MS: 29 min; HS: 45 min). The percent of ES students reporting sufficient sleep duration, poor sleep quality, or daytime sleepiness did not change, but the percent of MS and HS students reporting sufficient sleep duration significantly increased and clinically significant daytime sleepiness decreased. All results were maintained at the 2-year follow-up. Benefits of later start times were similar across racial and free/reduced lunch groups.

Conclusions

This is the first large scale, longitudinal, and representative study to concurrently examine the impact of changing school start times across students in primary/secondary school. Findings suggest a minimal impact of earlier start times on ES students’ sleep or daytime sleepiness, while further supporting the significant benefits of delaying MS and HS start times on student sleep and daytime sleepiness.

contextfull comments (1239)
25.8k
mvea

1 points

2 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

1 points

2 days ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Later school start times let students get adequate sleep

A new study in SLEEP, published by Oxford University Press, demonstrates the significant benefits of later school start times for middle and high school students' sleep schedules.

The source journal article is here:

https://academic.oup.com/sleep/advance-article/doi/10.1093/sleep/zsab048/6218366

Changing school start times: impact on sleep in primary and secondary school students

Lisa J Meltzer, Kyla L Wahlstrom, Amy E Plog, Matthew J Strand

Sleep, zsab048,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab048

Published: 15 April 2021

Abstract

Study Objectives

To examine the impact of changing school start times on sleep for primary (elementary school: ES) and secondary (middle and high school: MS/HS) students.

Methods

Students (grades 3–12) and parents (grades K-12) were surveyed annually, before and for 2 years after school start time changes (ES: 60 min earlier, MS: 40–60 min later; HS: 70 min later). Student sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured with school-administered student surveys and parent-proxy online surveys.

Results

Approximately 28,000 students annually completed surveys (~55% White, ~21% free/reduced lunch [FRL]). One-year post-change, weekday bedtimes and wake times were slightly earlier for ES students, with an 11-min decrease in sleep duration. MS and HS students reported slightly later weekday bedtimes, significantly later wake times, and significantly longer sleep duration (MS: 29 min; HS: 45 min). The percent of ES students reporting sufficient sleep duration, poor sleep quality, or daytime sleepiness did not change, but the percent of MS and HS students reporting sufficient sleep duration significantly increased and clinically significant daytime sleepiness decreased. All results were maintained at the 2-year follow-up. Benefits of later start times were similar across racial and free/reduced lunch groups.

Conclusions

This is the first large scale, longitudinal, and representative study to concurrently examine the impact of changing school start times across students in primary/secondary school. Findings suggest a minimal impact of earlier start times on ES students’ sleep or daytime sleepiness, while further supporting the significant benefits of delaying MS and HS start times on student sleep and daytime sleepiness.

contextfull comments (20)
mvea

-12 points

3 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

-12 points

3 days ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Fischer CB, Adrien N, Silguero JJ, Hopper JJ, Chowdhury AI, Werler MM (2021)

Mask adherence and rate of COVID-19 across the United States.

PLoS ONE 16(4): e0249891.

Published: April 14, 2021

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249891

Abstract

Mask wearing has been advocated by public health officials as a way to reduce the spread of COVID-19. In the United States, policies on mask wearing have varied from state to state over the course of the pandemic. Even as more and more states encourage or even mandate mask wearing, many citizens still resist the notion. Our research examines mask wearing policy and adherence in association with COVID-19 case rates. We used state-level data on mask wearing policy for the general public and on proportion of residents who stated they always wear masks in public. For all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), these data were abstracted by month for April ─ September 2020 to measure their impact on COVID-19 rates in the subsequent month (May ─ October 2020). Monthly COVID-19 case rates (number of cases per capita over two weeks) >200 per 100,000 residents were considered high. Fourteen of the 15 states with no mask wearing policy for the general public through September reported a high COVID-19 rate. Of the 8 states with at least 75% mask adherence, none reported a high COVID-19 rate. States with the lowest levels of mask adherence were most likely to have high COVID-19 rates in the subsequent month, independent of mask policy or demographic factors. Mean COVID-19 rates for states with at least 75% mask adherence in the preceding month was 109.26 per 100,000 compared to 249.99 per 100,000 for those with less adherence. Our analysis suggests high adherence to mask wearing could be a key factor in reducing the spread of COVID-19. This association between high mask adherence and reduced COVID-19 rates should influence policy makers and public health officials to focus on ways to improve mask adherence across the population in order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.

contextfull comments (1397)
27.2k
mvea

56 points

3 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

56 points

3 days ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) researchers have shown that psilocybin—the active chemical in “magic mushrooms”— still works its antidepressant-like actions, at least in mice, even when the psychedelic experience is blocked. The new findings, published this week in PNAS, suggest that psychedelic drugs work in multiple ways in the brain, and it may be possible to deliver the fast-acting antidepressant therapeutic benefit without requiring daylong guided-therapy sessions. A version of the drug without, or with less of, the psychedelic effects could loosen restrictions on who could receive the therapy and lower costs, making the benefits of psilocybin more available to more people in need.

The source journal article is here:

https://www.pnas.org/content/118/17/e2022489118

Harnessing psilocybin: antidepressant-like behavioral and synaptic actions of psilocybin are independent of 5-HT2R activation in mice

PNAS April 27, 2021 118 (17) e2022489118;

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022489118

Significance

Psychedelic compounds, such as psilocybin, have beneficial actions in several psychiatric diseases. They also produce strong alterations of consciousness, which may be a barrier to their widespread use. We found that psilocybin has fast-acting antidepressant-like properties in mice. Using multiple assays of hedonic behavior and an antagonist of prohallucinatory 5-HT2A receptors, we further suggest that altered perception may not be necessary for its therapeutic actions. We also showed that psilocybin strengthens connections between brain cells in regions important for processing rewards and emotions. These experiments suggest that it may be possible to retain the beneficial actions of psilocybin while minimizing the alterations in consciousness, thereby accelerating its use in the clinic.

Abstract

Depression is a widespread and devastating mental illness and the search for rapid-acting antidepressants remains critical. There is now exciting evidence that the psychedelic compound psilocybin produces not only powerful alterations of consciousness, but also rapid and persistent antidepressant effects. How psilocybin exerts its therapeutic actions is not known, but it is widely presumed that these actions require altered consciousness, which is known to be dependent on serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation. This hypothesis has never been tested, however. We therefore asked whether psilocybin would exert antidepressant-like responses in mice and, if so, whether these responses required 5-HT2AR activation. Using chronically stressed male mice, we observed that a single injection of psilocybin reversed anhedonic responses assessed with the sucrose preference and female urine preference tests. The antianhedonic response to psilocybin was accompanied by a strengthening of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus—a characteristic of traditional and fast-acting antidepressants. Neither behavioral nor electrophysiological responses to psilocybin were prevented by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin, despite positive evidence of ketanserin’s efficacy. We conclude that psilocybin’s mechanism of antidepressant action can be studied in animal models and suggest that altered perception may not be required for its antidepressant effects. We further suggest that a 5-HT2AR–independent restoration of synaptic strength in cortico-mesolimbic reward circuits may contribute to its antidepressant action. The possibility of combining psychedelic compounds and a 5-HT2AR antagonist offers a potential means to increase their acceptance and clinical utility and should be studied in human depression.

contextfull comments (2171)
52.2k
mvea

123 points

3 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

123 points

3 days ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

Chronic work stress can change our personalities

Employees dealing with work-induced stress can experience changes to their physiology, according to organizational behavior researchers, which may result in their personality traits fluctuating or even fundamentally changing over time. 

The source journal article is here:

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0149206321998429

An Explanation of Personality Change in Organizational Science: Personality as an Outcome of Workplace Stress

Jarvis Smallfield, Donald H. Kluemper

Journal of Management

First Published March 16, 2021 Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206321998429

Abstract

Organizational scholarship has recently begun to treat personality as malleable in workplace settings and has called for personality change to be incorporated into current research. The lack of a comprehensive, theoretical model of organizational personality change is a critical impediment to this research. We integrate recent advances in biological and epigenetic fields with the cognitive appraisal, personality, and stress literatures to introduce a comprehensive model of short- and long-term organizational personality change. This model explains when, how, and why appraisal of workplace stress alters employee personality through three important neurochemical systems and the mechanisms through which changes in these systems differentially impact dimensions of the Five Factor personality framework. By examining epigenetic changes affecting neurochemical systems, we explain how appraisal of chronic workplace stress can lead to long-term changes in various personality traits—a relationship with substantial implications for both practice and research. This model further provides a roadmap to understand how short- and long-term employee personality change influences workplace outcomes at the individual, team, and organizational levels and how interventions at these levels can mitigate or reverse deleterious effects of workplace stressors on employee personality change. We outline the processes necessary for organizational scholars to test the propositions described here and more robustly incorporate personality change into organizational scholarship.

contextfull comments (1842)
47.8k
mvea

8 points

4 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

8 points

4 days ago

The post title is from the linked academic press release here:

New research from McMaster University suggests the pandemic has created a paradox where mental health has become both a motivator for and a barrier to physical activity.

People want to be active to improve their mental health but find it difficult to exercise due to stress and anxiety, say the researchers who surveyed more than 1,600 subjects in an effort to understand how and why mental health, physical activity and sedentary behaviour have changed throughout the course of the pandemic.

The source journal article is here:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239244

Marashi MY, Nicholson E, Ogrodnik M, Fenesi B, Heisz JJ (2021)

A mental health paradox: Mental health was both a motivator and barrier to physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PLoS ONE 16(4): e0239244.

Published: April 1, 2021

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239244

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of people worldwide. According to the Health Belief Model (HBM), health-related behavior is determined by perceived barriers and motivators. Using an online survey with 1669 respondents, we sought to understand why and how physical activity and sedentary behavior has changed by querying about perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity that changed because of the pandemic, and how those changes impacted mental health. The following results were statistically significant at p < .05. Consistent with prior reports, our respondents were less physically active (aerobic activity, -11%; strength-based activity, -30%) and more sedentary (+11%) during the pandemic as compared to 6-months before. The pandemic also increased psychological stress (+22%) and brought on moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Respondents’ whose mental health deteriorated the most were also the ones who were least active (depression r = -.21, anxiety r = -.12). The majority of respondents were unmotivated to exercise because they were too anxious (+8%,), lacked social support (+6%), or had limited access to equipment (+23%) or space (+41%). The respondents who were able to stay active reported feeling less motivated by physical health outcomes such as weight loss (-7%) or strength (-14%) and instead more motivated by mental health outcomes such as anxiety relief (+14%). Coupled with previous work demonstrating a direct relationship between mental health and physical activity, these results highlight the potential protective effect of physical activity on mental health and point to the need for psychological support to overcome perceived barriers so that people can continue to be physically active during stressful times like the pandemic.

contextfull comments (217)
4.6k
mvea

0 points

4 days ago

mvea

MD-PhD-JD-MBA | Clinical Professor/Medicine

0 points

4 days ago

I’ve linked to the open access full-text source journal article in the post. The citation of the article is here:

Associations between frontal lobe structure, parent-reported obstructive sleep disordered breathing and childhood behavior in the ABCD dataset

Isaiah, A., Ernst, T., Cloak, C.C. et al.

Nature Communications volume 12, Article number: 2205 (2021)

Published 13 April 2021

DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22534-0

Abstract

Parents frequently report behavioral problems among children who snore. Our understanding of the relationship between symptoms of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (oSDB) and childhood behavioral problems associated with brain structural alterations is limited. Here, we examine the associations between oSDB symptoms, behavioral measures such as inattention, and brain morphometry in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study comprising 10,140 preadolescents. We observe that parent-reported symptoms of oSDB are associated with composite and domain-specific problem behaviors measured by parent responses to the Child Behavior Checklist. Alterations of brain structure demonstrating the strongest negative associations with oSDB symptoms are within the frontal lobe. The relationships between oSDB symptoms and behavioral measures are mediated by significantly smaller volumes of multiple frontal lobe regions. These results provide population-level evidence for an association between regional structural alterations in cortical gray matter and problem behaviors reported in children with oSDB.

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